As Stalin planted the wood to grow up bread, at requests of readers

Published: 21.5.2019
 as Stalin planted the wood to grow up bread

Great buildings of communism - quite so were called all global projects of the Soviet government: highways, canals, stations, reservoirs. On degree of their "greatness" it is possible to argue, but that it were grandiose projects of the time, it is not necessary to doubt.

White Sea-Baltic Canal had to connect the White Sea and Lake Onega and to provide an exit to the Baltic Sea and Volga-Baltic waterway. The canal was built by forces of prisoners of GULAG in record time - less than in two years (1931-1933). Extent of the channel is 227 kilometers. It was the first in the Soviet Union construction realized exclusively concluded, maybe, for this reason Belomorkanal is not always ranked as "great buildings of communism". Each builder of Belomorkanal was called "the concluded kanaloarmeets" or in abbreviated form "зэ" from where and the slangy word "convict" went. Propaganda posters of that time said: "From hot work your term will thaw!" It is valid, much of those who reached live until the end of building, terms were reduced. On average mortality reached 700 people a day. "Hot work" influenced also food: than developed big norm "зэ", that received "soldering" more impressively. The standard - 500 gr. bread and a skilly from seaweed.

One of the largest railway lines in the world was under construction with huge breaks, since 1938 and finishing 1984. The most difficult site - the North Musky tunnel - was put into continuous operation at all only in 2003. Stalin acted as the initiator of construction. About BAM there were songs, laudatory articles were published in newspapers, films were shot. Building was positioned as a feat of youth and, naturally, nobody knew that prisoners who survived after construction of Belomorkanal were sent for building in 1934. In the 1950th years on BAM about 50 thousand prisoners worked. Each meter of BAM costs one human life.

The attempt to connect Don and Volga was undertaken still by Peter the Great in 1696. In the 30th years of the last century the construction project was created, but war interfered with its realization. Works were resumed in 1943 right after the end of the Battle of Stalingrad. However start date of construction nevertheless should be considered 1948 when the first earthwork began. Except volunteers and military of builders 236 thousand prisoners and 100 thousand prisoners of war took part in construction of the route of the channel and its constructions. It is possible to find descriptions of the most terrible conditions in which there lived prisoners in journalism. Opportunities, dirty and lousy from absence, to wash regularly (there was one bath on all), half-starved and sick - so looked actually, deprived of the civil rights, "builders of communism". The channel was built for 4,5 years - and it is unique for a period of the world history of construction of hydroconstructions.

The plan was adopted at the initiative of Stalin in 1948 after a drought and the raging hunger of 46-47 years. The plan included creation of forest strips which had to bar the way to hot southeast winds - hot dry winds that would allow to change climate. Forest belts were planned to be placed for the area of 120 million hectares - England, Italy, France, the Netherlands and Belgium combined borrow so much. The plan also included construction of the irrigation system during which realization 4 thousand reservoirs appeared. It was planned to finish the project till 1965. More than 4 million hectares of the wood were landed, and the total length of forest belts was 5300 km. The state solved a food problem of the country, at the same time the part of grain began to be exported. After Stalin's death in 1953 the program was closed up, and in 1962 the USSR shook food crisis again - from counters bread and flour disappeared, interruptions in sugar and butter began.

Construction of the largest hydroelectric power station in Europe began summer of 1953. Near building in tradition of that time GULAG - the Akhtubinsk ITL on which more than 25 thousand prisoners worked was developed. They were engaged in laying of roads, carrying out power lines and the general preparatory work. They, clear, were not allowed to direct work on construction of hydroelectric power station. Also sappers who were engaged in mine clearing of the platform for future construction and a bottom of Volga worked at an object - the proximity to Stalingrad had an effect. On building about 40 thousand people and 19 thousand various mechanisms and cars worked. In 1961, having turned from "the Stalingrad hydroelectric power station" into "The Volga hydroelectric power station of a name of 21 congresses of the CPSU", the station was put into operation. It was solemnly opened by Khrushchev. The hydroelectric power station was a gift to 21 congresses at which Nikita Sergeyevich, by the way, declared intention to construct communism by 1980.

Construction of hydroelectric power station was developed in 1954 on the Angara River. The small settlement of Bratsk shortly expanded to the large city. Construction of hydroelectric power station was positioned as shock Komsomol building. On development of Siberia hundreds of thousands of Komsomol members from all Union gathered. Till 1971 the Brotherly hydroelectric power station was the world's largest, and the Bratsk Reservoir became the world's largest artificial reservoir. At its filling about 100 villages were flooded. In particular the shrill work by Valentin Rasputin "Farewell to Matyora" is devoted to the tragedy of "the Angarsk Atlantis".

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