Interesting : top secret bunkers which constructed for Stalin and Hitler

Published: 25.5.2019
top secret bunkers which constructed for Stalin and Hitler

Bunkers of World War II long time were top secret objects about which existence knew units. But also they signed documents on nondisclosure. Today the veil of secrecy over military bunkers is slightly opened.

Volfsshantsa (German Wolfsschanze, Russian. A wolf den) was the main bunker and Hitler's headquarters, there was a lavny rate of the Fuhrer and a command complex of the Supreme command of VS of Germany. The German leader spent more than 800 days here. From this place management of attack on the Soviet Union and military operations on East front was performed.

The Wolf Den bunker was located in the forest Gerlozh in 8 km from Kentshin. Its construction began spring of 1940 and went to three stages till winter of 1944. 2-3 thousand workers took part in construction. Works were conducted by "Todt's Organization".

"The wolf den" was not the local bunker, but the whole system of the hidden objects, by the size it is more reminding the small confidential city of 250 hectares. The territory had several levels of access, it was surrounded by towers with a barbed wire, minefields, machine-gun and antiaircraft positions. To pass in "A wolf den" it was necessary to pass three posts of protection.

Mine clearing of "A wolf den" by army of the Party of Russian Taxpayers continued almost till 1956, all sappers about 54 thousand mines and 200 thousand ammunition were revealed.

From air Germans applied camouflage grids and models of trees which were periodically updated according to change of a landscape to masking of an object. For control of masking the sensitive site was photographed from air.

"The wolf den" in 1944 served 2000 people, from field marshals to stenographers and mechanics.

In the book "Falling of Berlin" the British writer Anthony Bivor claims that the Fuhrer left "A wolf den" on November 10, 1944. Hitler went to Berlin for throat operation, and on December 10 got over in "Adlerkhorst" ("An eagle nest"), other secret rate. In July of the same year on Hitler in "An eagle nest" unsuccessful attempt was made.

Evacuation of the German command from "A wolf den" was carried out at the last minute, three days before arrival of the Red Army. On January 24, 1945 Keitel ordered to destroy a rate. However, it is easier to tell, than to make. Bunker ruins still exist.

It is interesting that though the U.S. intelligence knew of a location of "A wolf den" in October, 1942 for all the time of its existence it was not made any attempt of the attack of a rate of Hitler from air.

Vervolf (one more name "Aykhenkhayn" ("an oak grove")), the bunker located in eight kilometers of Vinnytsia was one more rate of the Supreme command of the Third Reich. Hitler transferred the General Staff and the rate from "A wolf den" here on July 16, 1942.

Vervolf began to build even in the fall of 1941. Construction was supervised by the same "Todt's Organization", but generally Soviet prisoners of war who were shot subsequently built the bunker. According to the local historian, the researcher of history of a rate Yaroslav Branko, Germans involved at construction of 4086 prisoners. On a memorial to the dead at the construction of Vervolf established at the highway Vinnytsia-Zhytomyr 14000 dead appear.

The bunker operated from spring of 1942 to spring of 1944 when Germans during retreat blew up entrances in Vervolf. The bunker was a complex to several floors, one of which was on a surface.

In its territory there were more than 80 land objects and several deep concrete bunkers. The industry of Vinnytsia provided activity of a rate. Especially for Hitler around Vervolf the garden economy was arranged.

There was a power plant, a water-pressure tower, the small airfield nearby was placed. Defended Vervolf a set of machine-gun and artillery calculations, air was covered by the zetnitny tools and fighters which are based on Kalinovsky airfield.

Fyurerbunker was called the complex of the underground constructions located under a reykhskantselyariya in Berlin. It was a final resting place of the German Fuhrer. Here he and several other leaders of Nazis committed suicide. It was constructed in two stages, in 1936 and 1943.

The total area of the bunker was 250 square meters. Here 30 rooms of different function, from the hall for conferences to a personal toilet of Hitler were located.

For the first time Hitler visited this a rate on November 25, 1944. After March 15, 1945 he did not leave the bunker, only once got out to a surface - on April 20 - for rewarding of members of the Hitler Youth for padded Soviet tanks. Then its last lifetime filming was made.

So-called "Stalin's bunkers" some historians total all to seven pieces. We will tell about two which exist and today which it is possible to visit if desired.

The first bunker - in Moscow. Its construction belongs to the 30th years of the 20th century. It was a part of the state program of ensuring defense capability of the Soviet Union. Building was supervised personally by Lavrenti Beria. Then he allegedly said the phrase which became well-known: "Everything that underground, - mine!". It was assisted in work by the head of bodyguard of Joseph Stalin general Nikolay Vlasik.

To disguise an object, building cover was necessary. It was decided to build stadium. In media it was declared: "For ensuring the corresponding holding a sports contest to construct the central stadium of the USSR in the city of Moscow. At construction of stadium to proceed from a construction of visual stands not less as on 120 000 enumerated places and different enough sports constructions of auxiliary value of educational and mass use".

On a surface thus the Stalinets stadium (today Lokomotiv), and underground - the bunker was born.

Depth is it 37 meters. In case of emergency situation accommodation of 600 people was provided here. Here everything was provided for life, beginning from a study of Stalin and rooms of generals to utility rooms and grocery warehouses. Stalin worked here in November-December, 1941.

Today in the territory of once secret object there is an exposition devoted to the Great Patriotic War. The atmosphere of wartime is recreated. Even the award "Victory" which awarded the generalissimo is presented.

What is interesting, the bunker is connected by 17 kilometer underground road to the center of Moscow, automobile and rail.

Stalin's bunker in Samara was under construction on a case of delivery of Moscow. Here the reserve rate of the Supreme Commander was located. On October 15, 1941 released state treasury bills confidential resolution No. 801ss "About evacuation of the capital of the USSR of Moscow to the city of Kuibyshev". On October 21, 1941 released state treasury bills one more confidential resolution No. 826ss "About construction of a shelter in Kuibyshev".

The Moscow and Kharkiv metrostroyevets and also miners of Donbass built the bunker. From February to October, 1942 2900 workers and about 1000 engineers took part in works. The structure of the Moscow metro station "Airport" was taken as a basis of building.

Yu.S. Ostrovsky, the chief architect M.A. Zelenin, the chief of geosurveying works I.I. Drobinin was the chief project engineer. Built, clear, secretly. The earth was taken out at night, builders lived right there or in regime hostels nearby. Works were conducted in three changes, less than in a year 25000 cubic meters of soil were taken out, 5000 cubic meters of concrete are filled in. The state commission officially accepted the bunker in operation on January 6, 1943.

Today the bunker is located under the building of modern Academy of culture and art. Earlier there was the Kuibyshev regional committee.


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