New heading: 100 years of the general theory of relativity

Published: 25.11.2018
we will congratulate Einstein: 100 years of the general theory of relativity

On November 25, 1915 Albert Einstein, at last, announced full mathematical details of the general theory of relativity (GTR) in the last from four articles, but gravitation and the nature of space remains same mysterious today what was those days. Now all of us got used to hear how this theory describes gravitation as "distortion of space" and that the general theory of relativity led to a number of sensational opening and explanations, like cosmology of the Big Bang, black holes and delay of the course of time under the influence of gravitation.

We even heard that according to Lenze's effect & #8212; The Tirring, predicted in 1918, rotation of bodies can "pull together" space and cause interesting, but very weak changes of behavior of the rotating gyroscopes in gravitational field. This strange phenomenon studied the NASA Gravity Probe B satellite in detail.

To learn more about the general theory of relativity, far it is not necessary to go - material on the Internet in bulk. But despite its relevancy and significant progress which it provided there are very prickly details on which scientists either work, or try to observe them directly.

The theory of relativity is based on the idea that the space and time form uniform physical essence under the name space time. Every time when you try to describe behavior something, you have to describe its effects not only in connection with three dimensions of space, but also the fourth temporary measurement. They are closely connected with each other, especially when you mathematically describe physical processes. You cannot just overcome distance from one point in another with a certain speed, you have to consider how this movement changes eventually. All this the simplest things. The set of articles how "the movement reduces speed of time" is written and "objects contract in the direction of the movement". But FROM adds one strange detail to the description of four-dimensional space time.

The general theory of relativity first of all claims that space time and gravitational fields - same. They are described by the same mathematical symbol in the theory. Gravitation is not force in general, and definition of how objects move in space time. If they move on a direct way, no gravitational force will exist in general. Here what you would feel in ideally empty space. But in the presence of matter (or energy) the space time is distorted geometrically so the most direct of possible lines in four measurements become distorted. We test this curvature in four measurements as change of acceleration or gravitational force between these objects. But why objects (and energy) can distort space time, this question remains without answer to this day.

In other situations, for example, with an electromagnetic force, we deal with the field which stretches through space and extends at the speed of light from the source. This field of force is concluded in space, like the paint concluded in dab on your wall. But FROM says that gravitation is not similar to it at all. What we call space time is gravitation in itself. Gravitation & #8212; not paint on a space time surface, like the electromagnetic field. To understand that there is a gravitation fully, you need to understand well that such space and time as physical things, but not mathematical abstractions. Einstein left two such here quotes:

"The space and time are the principles of our thinking, but not conditions in which we live".

"The space time does not apply for own existence but only on structural quality of gravitational field".

For the last 100 years we learned from numerous experiments that gravitation essentially differs from other three forces. Three of these forces, electromagnetism, strong and weak nuclear interaction, serve us for the description of the nature of substance and its interaction. This description is called Standard model and proves to be surprisingly exact mathematical model which is capable to explain the most difficult experiments made now on the Large Hadron Collider in CERN.

Though physicists tried to describe gravitation (space time) the same mathematical language that is used in Standard model, it led to the mass of technical problems. Not because mathematicians are insufficiently inventive (eventually, as a result of it we had a string theory and quantum loopback gravitation) but because all this does not give the slightest proof that gravitation (space time) is the same sort "the quantum field", as inherent in Standard model. The Nobel Prize laureate Freeman Dyson noted that:

"Е theories of quantum gravitation can be not checked and scientifically senseless. The classical Universe and the quantum Universe then could coexist quietly and peacefully. There would be no discrepancy between two of these pictures. Both pictures of the Universe would be true and search of the theory of association would be illusory".

Richard Feynman also noted in 1962 that "the extreme weakness of quantum gravitational effects represents some philosophical problems now. Perhaps, the nature tries to tell us something new, maybe, we should not try to quantize gravitation. It is still possible that the quantum theory does not guarantee to us that gravitation has to be quantized".

Today we know about the string theory and other mathematical models of space time and gravitation, but they do not reflect a picture of how gravitation or space time can look. Like the schematic charts used for assembly of radio receivers which do not describe the movement of electrons through a chain of components of a string and loop can just be our mathematical tools which help to carry out certain types of calculations. They are also similar to the symbolical charts of Feynman used for the description of electromagnetic quantum interactions. These calculations, however, in practice are not necessary as there are now no data which would report about need "to quantize" gravitation for an explanation of the known observed measurements.

We can claim that the physics would be simpler if the space time was quantized, but there are no certificates that our special thirst for association is really necessary for the real world. The nature can be mathematically more beautiful if the space time is the field consisting of gravitons or other quantum elements, but these needs are adjusted by the mathematical interests, but not obvious or necessary requirements of physics. And still game is worth the candle, as FROM in hundred years continues to ask us a question as matter can "generate" space time around us or, on the contrary, as the space time can generate the Universe and its physical contents. In Einstein's theory there are decisions in which the space time does not contain matter in general and, thus, does not demand its source at all. The latest theories in general indicate that information is more fundamental, than space time.

All this comes down to one simple thing: if we do not know, than the space time from the point of view of the physical agent how we in general can try to understand gravitation is or to try to manipulate it artificially, without speaking about creation of "varp-engines"?

It is possible when FROM it is executed 200, all of us will understand it. Or not?.

On the materials Odenvald's Wall, the astronomer of National space Institute, Huffington Post.


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